• Muharram marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, as well as the hijrah of the Prophet Muhammad (saw) from Makkah to Medina. The Battle of Karbala was held on Muharram 10, in the year 61 AH of the Islamic calendar (in October 10, 680 AD) in Karbala, in the present day Iraq. The battle took place between a small group of supporters and relatives of Muhammad (saw) grandson Imam Hussein ibn Ali, and the forces of Yazid I, the Umayyad caliph. When Imam Hussein ibn'Abbas, the descendants of Muhammad (saw) were killed by the second Umayyad caliph, when the events of the Battle of Karbala were killed. Family members accompanying him were killed. The remembrance of this event during the annual mourning season, with the Day of Ashura as the focal date, is to define Shia communal identity. Muharram observances are carried out in countries with Shia population.

    The Battle of Karbala is memorialized during a 10-day period every Muharram held by Shia and Alevi, on its tenenth day, known as the Day of Ashura. Shia Muslims commemorate these events by mourning, holding public processes, organizing majlis, striking the chest and in some cases self-flagellation. Battle of Karbala played a central role in shaping the identity of Shia and turned them into a sect with its own rituals and collective memory. Imam Hussein ibn Ali, died of a symbol of sacrifice in the right for wrong, and for justice and truth against wrongdoing and falsehood. So, the battle becomes more than a political formative moment of the faith with Islam.