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A Complete Guide to CBD Extraction in One

  • August 19, 2022 11:54 AM +05

    Original Title: A Complete Guide to CBD Extraction At present, more than 70 kinds of cannabinoids have been isolated from cannabis plants, among which CBD (cannabidiol) and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) have the highest content and are isomers of each other. The significant difference between CBD and THC is that THC is hallucinogenic and addictive, while CBD does not make people hallucinogenic and addictive, but also inhibits this "toxicity", which has outstanding effects in analgesia, sleep aid, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, neuroprotection, anti-anxiety, anti-tumor, liver protection, anti-diabetes and so on. Photo: NurPhoto/Getty Images As the efficacy of CBD has been widely studied, its downstream applications have become increasingly abundant. CBD can be used as a skin care product with the functions of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-acne and acne removal; CBD can be used as a medical product, and has mature products in the treatment of epilepsy and multiple sclerosis (MS)-British GW Company has developed Sativex and Epidiolex drugs with CBD as the main ingredient; CBD can be used in food, and has the effects of calming and improving sleep quality. So how does CBD derive from the cannabis plant? Is there any other way to get CBD other than directly from plants? 1, extract CBD by an extraction method In general, you can get CBD from the following cannabis plants: Industrial hemp (hemp), also known as hemp, hemp, THC content < 0.3%, does not show psychoactivity; Recreational marijuana, the drug marijuana, has a THC content of > 0.5% and produces strong psychoactive and addictive properties; Medical marijuana, with THC content between 0.3% and 0.5%, has a medicinal tendency. A prerequisite for extracting CBD from cannabis plants is to reduce the content of THC as much as possible. Therefore, THC content must be controlled from the source, that is, to select hemp plants with as little THC content as possible and as much CBD content as possible, that is, industrial hemp. So, how to extract CBD from industrial hemp? At present, the common methods are solvent extraction, supercritical CO2 extraction, olive oil extraction and so on. 1 Solvent extraction Extracting CBD from industrial hemp by solvent extraction is a relatively mature method in industry. Its basic principle is to extract phenols from plant by soaking and stirring or spraying pretreated plant raw materials with ethanol. Expand the full text Advantages: economical and simple. Disadvantages: The final extracted CBD oil is a mixture, which may contain some impurities, thus affecting the appearance and taste of the product. For example, the residue of chlorophyll will make the finished oil green and bitter. The extraction process is dangerous, and ethanol is easy to burn. 2 Supercritical CO2 extraction CO2 will change its state with the change of air pressure and temperature, and become gaseous, liquid or solid. Supercritical CO2 is a kind of material between gas and liquid. On the one hand, it has the property of liquid fluidity and the ability to extract some fat-soluble substances; on the other hand, it has good diffusibility and is similar to gas. Supercritical CO2 extraction technology is a new material extraction technology developed by using the characteristics of supercritical fluid. This method of extraction is typically accomplished using a specialized "closed-loop extractor" having three chambers. The method has the advantages that CO2 is safe and non-toxic, is not easy to burn, and is convenient to separate after extraction; CO2 is an inert gas, and is not easy to chemically react with cannabinol and other substances; and the extracted substance is pure, has no chlorophyll, and has low pollution risk. Cons: Expensive equipment (the kit starts at 39000 dollars) and complicated to operate. 3 Olive oil extraction Olive oil extraction is an easy way to make CBD products at home. Advantages: simple, safe and economical Disadvantages: Olive oil is perishable, so it must be stored in a cool, dark place and used as soon as possible; production capacity is too low for mass production.
    Growing Genetically Modified Hemp Crops: Industrial Hemp with Higher CBD Content The extraction efficiency of the above three CBD extraction methods depends on the amount of CBD content in the original industrial hemp. By cultivating transgenic cannabis plants, plants with higher CBD content can be obtained, thus improving the yield and efficiency of cannabis plant extraction at the source. At present, the CBD content of two kinds of industrial hemp "Yunma No.1" and "Yunma No.7", which are mainly planted in China, has not exceeded 1%, hemp extraction centrifuge ,winterization filtration, and may exceed 2% in the future. At present, the average content of CBD in industrial hemp seeds in the world is between 4% and 5%, up to 18%. The increase of CBD content may mean that THC content will also rise, which is also one of the main reasons considered by our government. It is believed that with the maturity of technology, the content of cannabinoid CBD in cannabis plants will continue to increase. Trait in the United States is committed to cultivating genetically modified cannabis crops and purifying cannabis through genetically modified technology. Ronan Levy, chief strategy officer of Trait, said that their first choice is to find a way to induce cannabis plants to produce cannabinoids in each of their cells in order to complete the purification and product development of cannabis. The extraction technology of industrial hemp has been well developed, and the chemical synthesis and biosynthesis of CBD are being widely studied. Chemical Synthesis of CBD 1 Traditional Synthesis Methods of CBD Catalyst: boron trifluoride Yield: 41% Disadvantages: low yield, many impurities, complexity and high cost 2 Optimized Synthesis of CBD Catalyst: palladium Yield: 74% Highlights: Replaced catalyst with palladium, reduced byproducts, high purity, high yield Due to the complex spatial configuration of CBD molecule, the traditional synthesis method of CBD has a low yield (only about 40%), and a large number of by-products will be produced, which has great limitations in extraction; Although the optimized synthesis method can obtain pure CBD and improve the yield (74%), the new method is still in the laboratory stage, and the high requirement of synthesis conditions makes the industrialization cost too high to meet the market requirements. III. Biosynthesis of CBD February 28, 2019, Dr. Luo Xiaozhou of Jay Keasling Research Group of University of California, Berkeley, published in Nature entitled Complete BIOS ynthesis of cannabinoids and their unnatural analogues in. The yeast's paper describes the related research on CBD biosynthesis-the gene fragments related to CBD expressed in plants were poured into yeast, and the yeast was modified and amplified to achieve the total biosynthesis of cannabinoids and their non-natural derivatives. In This study, the mevalonate pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was modified from galactose, and a metabolic pathway for hexanoyl-Coa synthesis was introduced. Heterologous reconstruction of the cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway was accomplished in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enabling the total biosynthesis of several major cannabinoids and their derivatives, including cannabinoid phenolic acid (CBGA), tetrahydrocannabinol (THCA), and cannabidiol (CBDA). This metabolic pathway is shown in the following figure: Many companies have seized the market and are optimistic about the prospects for commercialization. As early as 2017, when Jay Keasling applied for a patent for this method, he launched a research collaboration with Demetrix, a biotechnology start-up company, aiming to bring the process from the laboratory to commercial production, using technology to produce the rarest cannabinoids at a reasonable price, reducing the cost of production to less than $1000 per kilogram.
    Montreal-based Hyasynth similarly wants a piece of the action, after accepting a million-dollar investment from Canadian cannabis distributor OrganiGram to accelerate the rollout of its own biosynthetic cannabinoids. Biosynthetic Commercialization Difficulties Biosynthesis is the result of work begun by the Human Genome Project in the 1990s to genetically modify simple microorganisms such as yeast, bacteria, molds, lichens and fungi to create all kinds of things, including biofuels, medicines and even clothing fibers. Biosynthesis is considered a cheaper way to obtain concentrated cannabinoids, but it still faces difficulties: Yield problem: The current yield of biosynthetic CBD is only 10 mg/L, which may need to be expanded 1000 times to achieve industrialization. (At present, the biosynthesis yield of artemisinin with industrial conditions reaches 25 G/L). Technical problems: Biosynthetic engineering bacteria require the modification of dozens of gene loci, which is difficult to control, and maintaining the stability of the strain is also a problem. Sum up CBD extraction technology aims to improve the extraction rate and purity of CBD, remove THC residues as much as possible, avoid the use of toxic organic solvents, ensure product safety and environmental protection, and reduce costs as much as possible. In the current CBD acquisition methods, the skilled extraction method still occupies the mainstream position, while chemical synthesis is facing many challenges such as high cost, complex process and so on. Biosynthesis may be worth exploring. References Luo, Xiaozhou, Michael A. Reiter, et al. 2019. 'Complete biosynthesis of cannabinoids and their unnatural analogues in yeast', Nature. Research Progress on Chemical Constituents of Hemp and Discussion on Development of Hemp Resources in China, Chen Jianhua, Zang Jianzhu, Zhao Lining, Li Yujun, Tang Huijuan-China Hemp Industry Science, Vol. 25,wiped film distillation, No.6 (2003/12/20), P266-271 Back to Sohu, see more Responsible Editor:.

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