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  • Zoya Javed Pakistan Film Industry In Pakistan, it is uncommon to watch a well-made film that is not only based on true events but also dedicated to our real heroes. Pakistani cinema is blessed with a few talented directors who have given us movies that are timeless classics.There is a revival of cinema and film industries in pakistan.Pakistani film are not just for the local audience but are reaching out to audiences worldwide. They are not only going to international film festival but also trying to bag oscars. In past, Pakistani cinema try to show us the real culture and values in films like Armaan and maula jutt etc and hardly we watch one or two well-made movies after four to five years. At that time, pakistani cinema consist of pashto, urdu, punjabi and sindhi movies. But nowadays they all are working together for the evolution and betterment of pakistani cinema and film industries. In recent years, our film industry produce well-made films like jawani phir nahi aani, Teefa in trouble and bol etc. So, there is a positive evolution in pakistani film industry and after some years Lollywood should give tough time to our rivals.
    Mar 10

  • Tayyaba Gull Direction Techniques: Review of Pakistani Films in Digital Era. Films in Pakistan have gone through various phases. In this research the researcher has focused towards the direction techniques of Pakistani filmmakers. Researcher has conducted in depth interviews in this research with the directors. This research is qualitative in nature. The study resulted that in film direction it is important to develop logical sequence and realistic approach to be followed by the directors while production of films. The study also resulted that other important factors which makes a film popular are characters building and their performance in the film. Additionally the researcher has made documentary on this research which describes that every director has its own unique way of making films with respect to direction techniques. Introduction: In the today’s era everyone at the globe is aware about the media and its different types such as newspaper, television, drama, social media and films. Every type of media has its own importance. However here we will discuss the importance of media with respect to the films in the Pakistani society. Films Background in Pakistani Society: Films are the most suitable medium for the entertainment of the audience. The history of films in Pakistan is associated with the famous historical city Lahore which has played a great role in giving birth to this industry in Pakistan. Lahore is the city which has played a different role in Pakistani society either it is in form of political role, cultural inheritance role, historical role or the role with subject to the bringing the new industry in the Pakistani society. This city of Lahore has introduced the various scholars, writers, poets, political leaders and many more. It will be unfair to admit that Pakistani film industry has given birth too many writers, singers, directors. Short Glimpse of Cinema in Sub-Continent: Lumiere Brothers were the first one who brings the films through cinema in the Sub-continent. It was 7th July, 1896 when they run the six films without voice at Bombay hotel. In 1907 French people have shown their interest by opening a company having the film as their nature of business. This company is considered as the first foreign company in the Sub-continent. Cinema was also created in this year with the purpose to provide entertainment facility for the people of the Sub-continent in the region. In 1918 rules came into existence with having the actions like censorship and policies and procedure for the films at cinema in the Sub-continent, the action was taken by the British Government to control this emerging industry. Silent film with the catchy title “The Daughter of today” was released in Lahore in 1928. During that period cinema were also in under construction at various places in the historic city of Lahore. Most of the films that were shown in these cinemas were the local production that was done in Lahore, Bombay and Calcutta which has created the space for the nine cinema houses in the city. Only few films were shown in these cinemas which were brought from the London. As this industry was grooming the event of sub-continent partition occurred which changed the scenario of the film makers in a dramatic way as at that time main production hub of the films was the Bombay and the people who were associated with this film industry were in a difficult situation to decide whether to stay or to migrate from here Lahore to Bombay. During the period as films were mainly produced from Bombay and the equipment related to this industry was also there while the directors, filmmakers and actors in Lahore were in a deep trouble with respect to resources and infrastructure for the production of the films. People like the Rashid Atry, Nisar Bazmiand Noor Jahan were there who supported the cinema in uplifting it and film industry in Lahore, Pakistan. The movie with the title “Teri Yad” was the first movie in 1948 produced by the Pakistani film directors after getting through all the hardship that they dealt after the partition.
    Mar 9

  • Salman Iftikhar Portrayal of Muslims in Western Media: a framing analysis of the Daily Mail and Daily Express after London attacks (2017). From the start of my MS degree, I had plan to work on this particular topic as it has become trend that whenever any terrorist attack took place blames directly comes towards Muslim. So, my curiosity got increased that why there is too much hate for Muslims. In this span of time, Donald Trump also imposed ban over some Muslims countries. So, I discussed my interest with Dr. Moazzam, who was guiding us in writing a thesis proposal. Since, my second semester I start working on this topic. Dr. Moazzam suggested me to read maximum research articles so that I can make my mind in connection to this topic and his suggestion remained very fruitful for me. After maximum reading, I found a way to start my research study. I made maximum reading over globalization, role of Media, Western newspapers, framing theory and articles regarding Muslims projection. Dr. Masroor Alam was designated as my supervisor, I was very confused and was thinking that it would become very difficult for me to work with him but I was wrong. He guided me very well, he remained very helpful in entire session and gave me different ideas that how I can work on this research topic. I found that globalization has brought rapid change and increased interaction and communication among people, state and societies due to fast technological changes. Globalization and media are interlinking with each other. Media converted into mass media in result of acceleration of globalization. Newspapers, magazines, Radio, Television and various internet applications are those appliances of media through which all walks of people are updating themselves. Drama as well as film industries are those platforms of mass media which identify social and cultural behaviour of that region or specific area. Media is very effective, influential and important component as it can shape image about any particular community, group and religion. In this perspective, media plays very vital role in explaining, conveying and articulating those particular discourses through which minority groups usually represent and misrepresent. People’s beliefs, information and behaviours use to articulate through media discourses and media’s role becomes more significant when such media discourses target that particular minority groups. Depressing and wicked stories should not be promoted and focus must be on highlighting positive things so that a healthy society could achieved. A responsible media plays significant role in nation building. All religions talk about peace in its own writings and give directions to hateful acts which could be harmful for others. There is not even a single religion which supports killing and terror activities. Islam is fastest-growing religion and 2nd largest religion in the world. Mostly Muslims take their divine laws very seriously and its practice can be seen in their everyday life while in west people are not too much strict to their religion practices, this is one of the reason which is why Muslims use to consider rigid. After 9/11 President Bush used the word crusades against Muslims which stirred up the debate in Western media against Muslims. Islam and Muslims bring into limelight, after 9/11 terror attack launched by terrorist outfit Al-Qaeda, in result of terrorist activities. Islam and Muslims are tagged with terrorism and terrorists. Non-Muslims are not cognizant of real teachings of Islam and Muslims and construct their image about Muslims just on the basis of news and information which they are getting from opinion based media. A very clear shift had been seen in western media attitude towards Islam and Muslims, western media changed the course of history by using flashing titles; mainstream western media relate Islam with fundamentalism and radicalism. Overall Muslims are being negatively represented in mainstream British media as compared to other analogous groups like Jews and Christians. Muslims are being portrayed as terrorists and by repeating coverage against Muslims, the argument that Muslims are terrorists, gets strengthen and in result hatred or fear against Muslims is increasing. Since long, Islam has been remained in news for the acts of abductions, barbarism, suicide bombings or terrorism. Majority of world media has been acting as stooge in the hands of state. States owned media and media endorsed state polices. I found that journalistic ignorance, editorial agenda setting and cultural proximity are those factors which lead towards unbalanced approach in connection to negative projection of Muslims. Journalists must always do factual reporting as if they become the part of any specific agenda, then they will do perform their duties by pushing aside the journalistic norms which is the soul of this profession. Muslims are facing growing ethnicity issues and became victim of racialism just because of media biasness towards Muslims. Terms like extremist, terrorist, militant, Islamist and suicide bomber have been used for Muslims which give very negative reflection about Muslims and Islam. The purpose of the study is to explore and explain dynamics influencing portrayal of Muslims in leading English newspapers. It has founded that headlines of right-leaning western newspapers-most circulating newspapers are more negative than those in left-leaning western newspapers-lowest circulating newspapers.
    Mar 9