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  • Salman Iftikhar Portrayal of Muslims in Western Media: a framing analysis of the Daily Mail and Daily Express after London attacks (2017). From the start of my MS degree, I had plan to work on this particular topic as it has become trend that whenever any terrorist attack took place blames directly comes towards Muslim. So, my curiosity got increased that why there is too much hate for Muslims. In this span of time, Donald Trump also imposed ban over some Muslims countries. So, I discussed my interest with Dr. Moazzam, who was guiding us in writing a thesis proposal. Since, my second semester I start working on this topic. Dr. Moazzam suggested me to read maximum research articles so that I can make my mind in connection to this topic and his suggestion remained very fruitful for me. After maximum reading, I found a way to start my research study. I made maximum reading over globalization, role of Media, Western newspapers, framing theory and articles regarding Muslims projection. Dr. Masroor Alam was designated as my supervisor, I was very confused and was thinking that it would become very difficult for me to work with him but I was wrong. He guided me very well, he remained very helpful in entire session and gave me different ideas that how I can work on this research topic. I found that globalization has brought rapid change and increased interaction and communication among people, state and societies due to fast technological changes. Globalization and media are interlinking with each other. Media converted into mass media in result of acceleration of globalization. Newspapers, magazines, Radio, Television and various internet applications are those appliances of media through which all walks of people are updating themselves. Drama as well as film industries are those platforms of mass media which identify social and cultural behaviour of that region or specific area. Media is very effective, influential and important component as it can shape image about any particular community, group and religion. In this perspective, media plays very vital role in explaining, conveying and articulating those particular discourses through which minority groups usually represent and misrepresent. People’s beliefs, information and behaviours use to articulate through media discourses and media’s role becomes more significant when such media discourses target that particular minority groups. Depressing and wicked stories should not be promoted and focus must be on highlighting positive things so that a healthy society could achieved. A responsible media plays significant role in nation building. All religions talk about peace in its own writings and give directions to hateful acts which could be harmful for others. There is not even a single religion which supports killing and terror activities. Islam is fastest-growing religion and 2nd largest religion in the world. Mostly Muslims take their divine laws very seriously and its practice can be seen in their everyday life while in west people are not too much strict to their religion practices, this is one of the reason which is why Muslims use to consider rigid. After 9/11 President Bush used the word crusades against Muslims which stirred up the debate in Western media against Muslims. Islam and Muslims bring into limelight, after 9/11 terror attack launched by terrorist outfit Al-Qaeda, in result of terrorist activities. Islam and Muslims are tagged with terrorism and terrorists. Non-Muslims are not cognizant of real teachings of Islam and Muslims and construct their image about Muslims just on the basis of news and information which they are getting from opinion based media. A very clear shift had been seen in western media attitude towards Islam and Muslims, western media changed the course of history by using flashing titles; mainstream western media relate Islam with fundamentalism and radicalism. Overall Muslims are being negatively represented in mainstream British media as compared to other analogous groups like Jews and Christians. Muslims are being portrayed as terrorists and by repeating coverage against Muslims, the argument that Muslims are terrorists, gets strengthen and in result hatred or fear against Muslims is increasing. Since long, Islam has been remained in news for the acts of abductions, barbarism, suicide bombings or terrorism. Majority of world media has been acting as stooge in the hands of state. States owned media and media endorsed state polices. I found that journalistic ignorance, editorial agenda setting and cultural proximity are those factors which lead towards unbalanced approach in connection to negative projection of Muslims. Journalists must always do factual reporting as if they become the part of any specific agenda, then they will do perform their duties by pushing aside the journalistic norms which is the soul of this profession. Muslims are facing growing ethnicity issues and became victim of racialism just because of media biasness towards Muslims. Terms like extremist, terrorist, militant, Islamist and suicide bomber have been used for Muslims which give very negative reflection about Muslims and Islam. The purpose of the study is to explore and explain dynamics influencing portrayal of Muslims in leading English newspapers. It has founded that headlines of right-leaning western newspapers-most circulating newspapers are more negative than those in left-leaning western newspapers-lowest circulating newspapers.
    Mar 9

  • Muhammad Irfan Media plays an important role in shaping the public opinion.In the today's period there are different types of media foreums are available to convey the desired message in the required direction. As being the part of MS studies I have conducted a research on Depiction of MNCH Messages in Drama Serial Sammi: An Analysis in Islamic Perspective. I have two basic question to investigate the phenomena: 1. How the issue of Mother and Child Health(MNCH) was depicted in the drama? 2. How Islamic perspective was depicted regarding this (MNCH) issue in the drama? Under the guidance of Sir.Rehan, Dr Moazzism and Dr.Saqib Riaz I opted for the qualitative method in which I have made the categories and developed rules to analyze the messages of drama. Cultivation theory helped me to understand the the above mentioned area in my research. When I focused narrowly on the messages hidden in the drama I found that: There were 3 main objectives of the drama Sammi: One is Vanni, Two is Women inheritance rights and three is Mother and Child Health Messages. I have found that in 22 drama episodes, almost 59 minutes coverage was given to the messages related to drama serial Sammi in 22 scenes in different episodes. 7 Pro-Islam scenes were there, 12 scenes were Anti-Islam and 3 scenes were neutral. Conclusion: Drama in Pakistan is very famous at national and international level but with the passage of time the content of the drama has changed. The drama industry has progressed gradually in Pakistan, during the 1980s the content of the drama was different than the content that is produced in the today’s era. It may be because of the development and progress of technology in Pakistan and also the addition of Non-government organizations in the public sphere of domain. Though the non-government organizations have made much efforts in difficult times in Pakistan like in the situation of earth quake these organizations have done many appreciated efforts in rehabilitation of the affected areas. But every non-government organization has its own policy and agenda on which they have carried out their activities that may was one of the reasons which have contributed towards production of dramas like Sammi. The role of non-government organizations cannot only be specified to the dramas like Sammi but their focus was towards other different issues as well and they have done such work as well which needs to be appreciated as well. Currently there are different dramas serials aired on the electronic media screens. Sammi drama is also one of those dramas. The content of the drama serial Sammi was focused towards messages containing the social issues like Vanni, inheritance rights of the women in the property and the women health issues like mothers who give birth to the infants and they continue giving birth to the babies until they give birth to the male baby in their family. Though the drama has its own objective in which the script and theme is arranged in a such way that it fulfills the needs of the audience that is required to be done but there is dire need in this manner is that it should be dealt in accordance with the social settings of the Pakistani society and in line with the religion that is followed by the majority group of people. It should not in line with the focus of the other countries agendas or policies because they have different on ground realities and they have the different social, political and religious system in their country. In this drama the researcher has focused only to the scenes which were related to Mother and Child Health messages. Though the expression and dialogue delivery was good by the actors who were acting in the drama but the content of the messages was not portrayed in Islamic perspective in this drama. Generally the dressing was in line with social settings of the society and it was not vulgar or sexually appealing. Scenes were good and attractive in the drama and they got the attention as well from the public as well.
    Mar 8